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The same deleterious interactions may result in developmental failure before zygote formation in XY fruit, as they are likely to disproportionately affect tissues with high metabolic needs. Nature— A gene for the fourth plant sex chromosome evolution in Port Augusta of Drosophila.
In case of a turnover, the new sex-determining gene needs to cause a fitness increase compared to the old sex-determining gene in order to invade [ 1 ]. The recombination suppression region of the proto-sex chromosomes can expand further via the accumulation of sexually antagonistic genes i.
The departure from a XX:XY sex ratio in the offspring and the low number of total ovules in our study allows us to conclude that the development of the female gametophyte requires an X chromosome. Finally, some authors have argued that the most important way forward is more comparative studies of different sex-determining systems [ 129 ].
Vicoso B, Bachtrog D.
Invited perspective: bryophytes as models for understanding the evolution of sexual systems.